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Tenses



TENSES

1

The verb in a sentence expresses an action, event, or state.
It also expresses the time to which these actions belong.
That is to say, it tells us whether
an action or event took place sometimes ago,
Or whether
it takes /is taking place now;
Or, again, whether
it will take place in the time to come.
The words, which show these actions or events are called the
 Tense forms of the verbs.
         
Look at the action in the following sentences:
Ram writes a letter
Ram wrote a letter
Ram will write a letter

In sentence no. 1, the verb writes refers to present time, so it will be called verb in Present Tense.
In sentence, no.2 the verb wrote refers to the past time, so it will be called verb in Past Tense.
In sentence no.3 the verb will write refers to the time yet to come, so it will be called verb in
Future Tense.
Thus the verbs or action words according to their time
Can be broadly divided into three tenses
Present Tense
Past Tense
Future Tense


2


Further, these tenses can be sub-divided into four categories,
according to the form and time of action.
When the verb does not indicate whether the action is complete or not
Such forms of verbs are called
Indefinite or Simple   
For example
I play in the evening
I played in the evening yesterday
I shall play in the evening

When the verb in a certain tense
shows the continuation of an action or event
such forms of verbs are called
Continuous or Progressive Tense
For example
I am playing now
I was playing when you came
I shall be playing in the evening

When the verb in a certain tense indicates the completion of an action
it is called
Perfect Tense
For example
I have played and now I shall do home work
I had played when he came
I shall have played when he comes

When the verb in a certain tense indicates continuation or repetition
of an action from a certain time to another certain time
or over the period of continuation
it is called
(as the name suggests)
Perfect Continuous Tense
For example
I have been playing since morning
I had been playing for three hours when father called me
I shall have been playing for two hours when my father comes from office
         
Thus, we have
Twelve Tenses
Indicating different forms of verbs
used for various kinds of actions or events
at various points of time
namely

Present Indefinite / Simple Tense

Present Continuous/Progressive Tense

Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense

Past Indefinite/Simple Tense

Past Continuous/Progressive Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense

Future Indefinite/Simple Tense

Future Continuous/Progressive Tense

Future Perfect Tense

Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense



3

Now the problem arises how to take these tenses into correct usage.
No worry, here are some steps that will easily help in
learning, understanding, and using of different Tenses correctly

So, the first thing that we have to do is to make
Recognition of Tense
That can easily be done with the help of following four formulas

(i)
KEY WORDS
Each tense has certain key words, which are used in that particular tense only.
With the help of these words, we can easily recognize the tense.
They help us to put the sentence in a particular tense.
Look at the following sentences

Our principal usually writes in green ink.
She is still doing her homework.
She has just gone to market.
We saw a movie yesterday.
The patient had died before the doctor came

In these sentences, the underlined words are key words
They are mostly used in a particular tense only
Usually is always used in Present Indefinite Tense
Still in Present Continuous Tense
Just in Present Perfect Tense
Yesterday in Past Indefinite Tense
and likewise before in Past Perfect Tense

In the following rules on tenses
we shall, first of all look at the key-words of each tense,
so as to make an easy understanding of the tenses 



(ii)
COMBINATIONS
Sometimes we do have complex sentences also
In such sentences, the two clauses/parts may have two different tenses
The use of such two different tenses in a single complex sentence
can also be called combination of verbs or tenses
Look at the following few examples

I shall not go to his house unless he invites me
The patient had died before the doctor came
I broke my leg while I was getting down the bus
He would have passed if he had worked hard

The coming together of shall not go, unless, invites in the sentence no.1
and of had died, before, came in sentence no.2
of broke, while, was getting in sentence no. 3
and of would have passed, if, had worked in sentence no.4
is not just by chance
They fall together under certain combinations
These combinations also help in the correct use of tenses
So, after considering the key words in each tense
we shall learn the combinations in which a certain tense can be used



 (iii)
USES OR MEANINGS OF TENSES
Each Tense is a meaningful verb form
so each tense indicates certain meaning /meanings
or in easier language, we can say that each tense has certain uses
Now we shall discuss in detail the uses of each tense in the following rules
Look at the following sentences

The sun rises in the East and sets in the West
She is learning music these days
Columbus discovered America

In the sentence no.1 Present Indefinite Tense is used
because only this tense indicates
Universal truth or Natural Action
In the sentence no.2 Present Continuous Tense is used
because only this tense indicates
Temporary Habits/action
Likewise only Past Indefinite Tense indicates
Discovery
as shown in the sentence no. 3

It is hoped a better understanding of these uses
related to various tenses
may certainly help a lot in the proper use of the tenses



4

Kinds of Sentences

This step is generally not taken into consideration while preparing for tenses, but it is equally important. After deciding the tense in a particular sentence, we must also see what type of sentence it is. A simple sentence can most commonly take three forms

a)    Affirmative Sentence
(Ends on full stop and giving general information in the form of a statement)
Ram works hard.
His father died in 1983

b)    Negative Sentence
(Ends on a full stop but negates a statement)
Generally not is added before the verb
Ram does not work hard
His father is not coming this week

c) Interrogative Sentence
(It presents a question and ends on a question/interrogation mark)
Does Ram work hard?
Did his father die in 1983?

This step becomes all the more important
because a verb can take different forms in a single tense
if the kind of sentence is changed
She goes to school.
Does she go to school?
She does not go to school. 




5  

Agreement of subjects and verbs

It is yet another very important step while practicing tenses. The verbs, which are to be used in tenses, must strictly be in compromise and agreement with the subject (the performer /doer of the action) of the sentence. It is often observed that a sentence goes wrong in spite of choosing correct tense and selecting the proper verb, just for the want of improper agreement of a verb with the given subject. Look at the following sentences in which wrong agreement of subjects and verbs is made
Ram have four sons.
I is learning a lesson.
you was seen by me.

In these sentences, the tense is correctly used, but these sentences look absurd because wrong verbs have been used with the subjects, which are not in accordance with them. They should be, as follows:
Ram has four sons.
I am learning a lesson.
You were seen by me.

A chart showing the proper agreement of subject and verb in various tenses is given below. Students and readers are advised to learn this chart by heart before going into the depth of tenses.




Agreement of subjects and verbs

Tense                                                Subjects                                              Verbs to be used

Pres Indefinite           I, We, You, They, Plurals (nouns)                  I form / Do + I form.

Pres. Indefinite           He, She, It, Singular (nouns)                          I form + s/es, does + Ist form

Pres. Continuous         I                                                                       am + I form + ing

Pres. Continuous         He, She, It, Singular (nouns)                          Is + I form + ing

Pres. Continuous         We, You, They, Plural (nouns)                       are + I form + ing

Pres. Perfect               I, We, You, They, Plural (nouns)                    Have + III + form
                                  He, She, It, Singular (nouns)                          has + III + form

Pres. Perfect Cont.      I, we, you, they, plural noun                            have been + V1 + ing
                                  He, she, it, singular noun                                has been + V1 + ing

Past Indefinite             All Subjects                                                     II form

Past Continuous          I, he, she, it, singular (nouns)                            was + I form + ing

Past Continuous          we, you, they plural (nouns)                             were + I form + ing

Past perfect                 All subjects                                                     Had + III form           

Past perfect Cont.       All Subjects                                                     Had been I form+ing

Fut. (All tenses)          I, we                                                                shall

Fut. (All tenses)          with all other subjects                                        will. 




Let’s Start Learning Tense

1. Present Indefinite Tense

FORMS OF VERBS

Affirmative Sentence: Sub + I form or I form + s/es. With Singular IIIrd person
Negative Sentence: Sub + do/does + not + I form.
Interrogative Sentence: Do/does + sub + I form.


KEY WORDS

Always, Often, Seldom, Usually, generally, Never, Normally, Rarely, every..., Hourly, Daily, Weekly, Monthly, Yearly, Quarterly, once a week, twice a month, thrice a year, Sundays, Mondays
Ex.    
She always speaks the truth.
Our principal generally writes in green ink.
Buses for Chandigarh run hourly.


Combinations

If (V1), Subject + will/shall +V1
If he fails in the exam. his father will not spare him
If you go to meet him now, you will certainly meet him

If (V1), Sub + Modal verb
If you feel hungry, you can eat something.
If the pain returns, you must consult a good doctor

If (V1), V2 (Imperative Construction)
If the milkman comes, please tell him to see me

Present Indefinite Tense is also used in unless clause in a complex sentence
I shall not go to his party, unless he invites me

If (V1), Sub + V1 (Universal Truth)
If you heat water, it boils.

Uses/Meanings of Present IndefiniteTense

To express what is actually happening at the present moment:
Ex.     There goes the school bell.

To express quality of character
Ex.     He keeps his promise. 

To express a future action or event:
Ex.     The school closes next week.

To express a natural phenomenon:
Ex.     The earth revolves around the sun.

To express scientifically proven facts:
Ex.     Light travels in a straight line.

To express a social, game or law rule:
Ex.     Batsman goes out if caught.

To express formulas in Science or Math:
Two and two make four.

To express customs or rituals:
Ex.     In many parts of India, women observe Purdah even today.

In Idioms:
Ex.     Money makes the mare go.

To express the habit of a person:
Ex.     My father gets up at 4.00 in the morning.

To express the hobby of a person:
Ex.     Painting interests him very much.

To express a routine action or event.
Ex.     The bus for Chandigarh leaves at 10.30.

For story telling or historic present:
Ex........ Then Akbar calls Birbal for his advice.






Let us see what have we learnt

Fill in the following blanks with the correct form of the Present Indefinite Tense of the verbs in brackets


1.       Do you ______ for a walk in the morning?                              (Go)
2.       Ram _______ gently with everyone.                                       (Talk)
3.       It seldom ______ in Shimla in June.                                        (Rain)
4.       I………… my father to reach here by noon.                            (Expect)
5.       The boys ____ up when the teacher comes.                            (Stand)
6.       Good girls ______ much.                                                       (Not laugh)
7.       We ______ to school at 8.00 every morning.                           (Go)
8.       Aero plane _____ in the air.                                                     (Fly)
9.       The sun _____ in the West.                                                     (Set)
10.     He _____ to see a movie every Sunday.                                   (Go)








Check Yourself Here

1.go                       2.talks         3.rains        4.expects              5. stand
6. do not laugh     7. go           8. flies         9. sets                   10.goes







2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Forms of verb
Affirmative Sentence:   Sub + is/am/are + V1 (ing)
Negative Sentence: Sub + is/am/are not + V1 (ing)
Interrogative Sentence: Is/am/are + sub + V1 (ing)

KEY WORDS
Still, At Present, These days, Now-a-days, for the time being, today, tomorrow,
tonight, this ....,  presently, now, at this time, at this moment, at present etc.
Ex.             
She is still doing her homework.
My father is arriving tomorrow.
She is doing hard work now.


COMBINATIONS
If there is direct address to a person in one part of the sentence-
Ex.    
Look! Smoke is coming out of that window.
Ex.    
Don't make a noise, because the child is sleeping in the next room.


USES/MEANINGS OF PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
To indicate an action or event taking place at the time of speaking or writing:
Ex.    
The boys are singing a song.

         
To express a planned future:
Ex.    
We are going to watch a movie tomorrow.


          To express temporary habits, hobbies or routines:
Ex.    
My sister is learning Bharatnatyam these days.

Important Note
The verbs related to senses like - See, Feel, Hear, Smell etc. are not used in Present Continuous Tense; instead, Present Indefinite Tense is used in such sentences:
Ex.    
I smell something burning. (Not, am smelling)
Ex.    
I feel cold, as the window is open. (Not, am feeling)



Let us see what have we learnt from
Present Indefinite & Present Continuous Tenses

1.       Who _________ on the door?                                                  (knock)
2.       She _________ to office in car.                                                (Go)
3.       My brother _______ swimming under Mr. Kataria.                     (Learn)
4.       Children ______ in the garden.                                                   (Play)
5.       Boys _______ to school at 8.00.                                                (Go)
6.       It was raining in the morning but the sun ____ now.                     (Shine)
7.       The clouds _____ across the sky.                                               (Move)
8.       Ramesh ______ because he has lost his gold ring.                       (Cry)
9.       She ______ her homework at present.                                         (Do)
10.     He ______ in a strange manner.                                                   (Laugh)












Check Yourself Here

1.is knocking  2.goes/is going  3.learns/is learning   4. Are playing      5.go


6.is shining     7.are moving     8.is crying               9.is going             10.laughs





3. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

FORMS OF VERB

Affirmative Sentence: Sub + has/have + III form.

Negative Sentence: Sub + has/have-not + III form.

Interrogative Sentence: Has/have + sub + III form.

KEY WORDS
Yet, so far, just, already, ever, never, lately, recently, presently, several times, before

Ex.

She has not completed her home work yet.
Have you seen a good film lately ?
I have never seen a shark.



COMBINATIONS

Sub + Modal + V1 , When/after, till (has/have V3)
Ex.
You can go home, when you have finished your class-work.
You may not leave till you have typed all these letters.



USES OF PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

To express such an action or event which has completed recently :-
Ex.    
I have just taken a cup of tea.

To express the effect of an action, when the action in itself has been completed in the past:
Ex.    
I have broken my leg in an accident.

To express such an action or event which started in the past and is still continuing 
Ex.    
We have lived in this town since 1990.

To indicate the last action or event of a chain of actions :
Ex.    
She has passed graduation.










Let us see what have we learnt from

Fill in the following blanks with Present perfect tense.
1.       A snake _________ her.                                                          ( bite)
2.       I _________ a cold.                                                                ( catch)
3.       You ever _______ a shark ?                                                     (see)
4.       He ______ his homework so far.                                              (not finish)
5.       ______ you ever _____ to Kashmir?                                        (be)
6.       The train ______ already.                                                         (leave)
7.       ____ you _____ a job yet ?                                                      (not find)
8.       Nepal ______ some of the world's finest soldiers.                     (provide)
9.       My mother ______ an invalid all her life.                                   (be)
10.     I _______ here for ten years.                                                     (live)



Check Yourself Here

1.Has bitten    2. Have caught           3. Have you ever seen          4. Has not finished    
5. Have you ever been                       6. Has already left                7.have you not found            
8. Has provided                                  9.Has been                             10. Have lived











4. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

FORMS OF VERB

Affirmative Sentence: Sub + has/have been + V1 (ing)
Negative Sentence: Sub+ has/have-not been + V1 (ing)
Interrogative Sentence: Has/have + sub +been + V1 (ing)

KEY-WORDS

 Since, for The sentence (complex, compound, simple) must be in present situation.
          Ex.
She has been washing clothes since morning.
          I have been working in this factory for fifteen years.
          I have been working since morning and I am tired now.


USES OF PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE 
          To indicate such an action or event which started in the past and is still continuing :
          Ex.
We have been living in this town since 1972.
         
For such an action whose completion and starting are repeated again and again till present time:
          Ex.
 My father has been visiting Delhi Since 1985.
          The child has been crying for two hours.




Let us see what have we learnt from

Fill in the following blanks with present perfect or present perfect continuous Tense.
1.       She ___________ to set puzzle for two hours but she _______ so far.        ( try, not succeed)
2.       The lady _____ meals for three hours .                                                         (cook)
3.       The gardener _____________ in the garden since early         morning.          ( work)
4.       We ___ to the cricket commentary since 10.00 and we ___ our meals yet.   (listen, not take)
5.       My friend ________ a new book, I _______ to see it for some days.           ( buy, wait)
6.       The doctors ___ to revive the patient for several days but they ___ so far.     ( try, not succeed)
7.       I ________ her off and on for a year.                                                            ( meet)
8.       He _____ in army for five years.                                                                    ( be)
9.       Our people _________ yet.                                                                          ( not arrive)
10.     They _____ that bridge for over a year but ______ it.                                    (build, not complete.)








Check Yourself Here

1.Has been trying, has not succeeded        2.has been cooking                   
3.has been working                                   4.have been listening, have not taken       5.has bought , have been waiting                6. have been  trying, have not succeeded   
7. Have been meeting                                 8.has been                                         
9. Have not arrived                                    10. Have been building , have not completed




5. Past Indefinite Tense


FORMS OF VERB
Affirmative Sentence: Sub + V2
Negative Sentence: Sub + did not + V1
Interrogative Sentence: Did + sub + V1

Key-Words
Last, Yesterday, Ago, previous day, day before yesterday, conjunctions.  As soon as, No sooner-than, When etc.

Ex.
I saw a movie last night.
His father died many years ago.
Everybody stood up as soon as the teacher entered the class.
As soon as I entered the room, it started raining.
No sooner did I enter the room, than it started raining.


COMBINATIONS:
If (V2), Sub + would/should/ could + V1
Ex.  If the police caught the thief, they would beat him

Sub + V2, while (was/were + V1 ing)
Ex. He slipped and broke his leg when he was trying to climb the bus.

Sub +V2, + after/before/already + had +V3
Ex. I reached the station after the train had left.

When the sentence begins with 'would That'. ( Here normally Be is the verb to be used and we use only 'were' as the past Indefinite with all the subjects.)
Ex. Would that I were a king !

Uses of Past Indefinite Tense :

To express a single act in the past :
Ex. He scored a century in the very first match.

To indicate a habit or custom in the past :
Ex. They visited us every Sunday.

To express the time of death :-
Ex. Shakespeare died in 1616.

To indicate Discovery :
Ex.  Columbus discovered America.

To indicate an invention :-
Ex. Water man invented fountain pen.

To express an imaginary or unfulfilled wish :
Ex. Would that Gandhi Ji were alive today!

To express historical facts :
Ex.  India got freedom in 1947.


Let us see what have we learnt

Fill in the following blanks with Present Prefect  or Past Indefinite Tense :
1.You _________ football since you ________ to Ambala.                         (Play, come)
2.I _____ this jeans at the Palika two days ago.                                             (Purchase)
3.He was badly wounded and _____ profusely.                                            (Bleed)
4.Look how  the color of this shirt ______ after washing.                             (Fade)
5.This heap of rubbish _____ here for over a week.                                       (Be)
6.I ____ English at secondary school and _____ it for three years.               (Begin, do)
7.Our hen _____ two eggs yesterday and just now it ____ another.                         (Lay, Lay)
8.Anybody ______ appointed to take his place ?                                          (Be)
9.You ___ a play at the Royal Theatre when you ___ at Stratford ?             (See, Be)
10.I Just _____ it and I _______ anything.                                                    (Touch, not feel)



Check Yourself Here

1.have you played , went        2. Bought                    3.bled                                      4. Has faded  
5. Has been                             6.began, have done     7. Laid, has laid                      8.has anybody been appointed                         9. Did you see, were   10. Have just touched, did not feel





6. Past continuous Tense :

FORMS OF VERB
Affirmative Sentence :Sub + was/were + I form ing.
Negative Sentence :Sub + was/were + not + I form ing.
Interrogative Sentence: Was/were + sub + I form ing.

KEY WORDS:
While.
Ex. I was doing my home work while my sister was watching TV.

COMBINATION:
sub + V2 , when/while + was/were + V1 (ing)
Ex. I lost my purse when I was playing in the ground.

Uses of Past Continuous Tense
To express an action which was continuing at a particular time in Past :
Ex. At 7.00 a.m. this morning, I was reading a newspaper.
To express two simultaneous actions continuing in the past :
Ex. While Rome was burning Nero was fiddling.


Let us see what have we learnt
Fill in the following blanks with past Indefinite  or Past Continuous forms of the given verbs:
1.When she got into the train it ______ off.                                                  (Move)
2.When I visited her, she _____ her home work.                                           (Do)
3.He _____ in the room when the roof fell down.                                         (Sit)
4.He ______ a shot when he saw the tiger.                                                    (Fire)
5.Lights went off when we _____ the movie.                                                (Watch)
6.You _____ who was making a noise in the street?                                      (Know)
7.When my father entered the house , children ____ in the garden.             (Play)
8.We ______ tea and _______ out.                                                                (Take, go)
9.He was walking along the road when a dog _____ him                              (bite)
10.As he _____ off the bus, it _____ with a jerk                                           (get, start)




Check Yourself Here

1.moving off                                      2. Was doing                      3.was sitting                       4. Fired                                
5.were watching                              6. Did you know                7.were playing                  8.took, went     
9.bit                                                       10. Was getting, started




 7. Past Perfect TENSE


FORMS OF VERB
Affirmative Sentence: Sub + had + III form.
Negative Sentence: Sub + had not + III form.
Interrogative Sentence: Had+ sub + III form.

Key-Words :  Before, After, Already, By then.
Ex. I had written to my friend before I went to school.
I reached the station but the train had already left.

Combinations :
Before/After/Already/By then + Past Indefinite + Past Perfect Tense.
Ex. When I reached in the class the teacher had called the rolls by then.

If + would/Could/Should have III form + Past perfect Tense.
Ex. If you had driven slow, you would not have met that accident.

Uses of Past Perfect Tense :-
To express unfulfilled wishes :
Ex. I wish I had accepted his offer.

To express an action of Remote Past. :-
Ex.  He had completed his studies before the war broke out.




Let us see what have we learnt

Fill in the following blanks with correct verb forms of Past Indefinite or Past Perfect Tense:-
1.         When I _______ home yesterday, I ______ that my friend ______. (reach, see, leave)
2.         It seemed that fate __________ the matter out of her hands.           ( take)
3.         I _______ my train ______ at 2.30.                                                   ( think, leave)
4.         He ______ his car under a NO PARKING sign and _____ into a shop. ( park, rush)
5.         He ______ looking at her, wondering where he_______ her before . ( keep, see)
6.         When he _____ his wife off at the station, he _______home.           (see, return)
7.         By the time I ______ from the shock he _____round the corner.      (recover, disappear)
8.         He _____ me exactly what _________ .                                            (tell, happen)
9.         I wish you ____________ the application before the due date.        (submit)
10.       They ______ hungry because they _______nothing since the day before. (be, have)

Check Yourself Here
1.went, saw, had left              2. Had taken               3.thought, had                         4. Parked, rushed 5.kept, had seen                         6.had seen, returned    7. Recovered, had disappeared 8.told, had happened                                    9. Had submitted            10.were, had had




8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense


FORMS OF VERB
Assertive Sentence: Sub + had been + I form + ing.
Negative Sentence: Sub + had not been +  I form + ing.
Interrogative Sentence: Had+ sub + been + I form + ing.

KEY WORDS  
Since, For (When one part of the sentence is already past in tense.)
Ex. She had been working in this school for 25 years before she left.

Combinations
This tense has no regular combination as such.

Uses of Past Perfect Continuous Tense :
This tense shows that an action had continued for a certain time, previous to the point of past time mentioned:-
Ex. I had been waiting for my friend for two hours before he came.




Let us see what have we learnt

Fill in the following blanks with the correct verb forms of Past Indefinite or Past Perfect Continuous Tense :-
1.My friend ________ in this office for thirty years before he __________.            ( work, retire)
2.The telephone _________ for five minutes but there ____no one to attend it.      ( ring, Be)
3.I _______Balu at the bus stand who _________ for the bus for an hour.              ( meet, wait)
4.Our football team _________ the annual tournament until last year.                     (win)
5.He ___________ vocal music for 15 years when he ______ his voice.                  ( teach, lose)
6.We ___________ for the bus for some time when it ________ full.                      ( wait, arrive)
7.He ______ from fever for several days before he _______ for the doctor.            ( suffer, send)
8.The peasants ______ their way towards the little town because it was market day. (make)
9.The man ________ hard for some time when you met him?                                   (work)
10.The laborers _________ for higher wages for a month when the management _______
to give them a rise of fifty rupees each.                                                                      (demand, agree)




Check Yourself Here

1.had been working, left          2.had been ringing. Was          3.met, had been waiting               4.won                                              5.had been teaching, lost         6.had been waiting, arrived            7.had been suffering, sent             8. Made                           9.had been working                    10.had been demanding, agreed




9. Future Indefinite Tense


FORMS OF VERB
Assertive Sentence: Sub + Will/shall + I form.
Negative sentence: Sub+ will/shall not + I form.
Interrogative Sentence: will/shall+ sub + I form.

(Note: We use SHALL with first person and WILL with second and third person. If, however, the sentence expresses Determination, Intention, Promise, Threat, Assurance, Order etc. Shall can be used with second and third person and vice-versa)

Key- Words 
 Tomorrow, next ..., when present  Indefinite.

Ex. 
I shall go for shopping tomorrow.
. My father will arrive home next week.
She will start cooking when her husband comes.

Combinations :-
If + Present Indefinite + Future Indefinite.
Ex. What will happen if my parachute does not open?
My father will snub me badly, If I fail in the exam.

Uses of Future Indefinite Tense :-
To express an intention
Ex. I will accompany you to the market.

To express and extend a request
Ex. Will you lend me a thousand rupees ?

To express a polite invitation
Ex. Will you have a cup of tea ?

To express Determination
Ex. I will secure merit this year.

To extend a promise
Ex. I will return your book tomorrow.

To indicate threat
Ex. You shall not enter my class. I forbid it.

To extend an order
Ex. You shall not leave the office until you type all these letters.

To express Future
Ex. We shall go to Chandigarh day after tomorrow.





Let us see what have we learnt

Fill in the following blanks with present Indefinite, Present Continuous or Future Indefinite Tense to express future.
1.I find an extra plate on the table. Who ___________to dinner ?                            (come)
2.I ______at home next week. I _______for Delhi tonight.                                      (Not be, leave)
3.There are dark clouds in the sky. I think it _________                                           (rain)
4.The roof has caught fire. I'm afraid it _________.                                                  (fall)
5.Mr. Anand ______present at the meeting next week. He ______abroad.              (not be, go )
6.He _________me.                                                                                                    (obey)
7.I _______to buy a new cycle.                                                                                  (go)
8.The DEO _________the school tomorrow.                                                             (visit)
9.You _______your result in a day or two.                                                                (know)
10.I _______a meeting at 5.00                                                                                   (attend)






Check Yourself Here
1.is coming      2.shall not be , am leaving       3.will rain        4.will fall         5.will not be, is going 6.obeys             7.am going                              8.will visit       9.will know     10.a attending





10 FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE


FORMS OF VERB
Affirmative Sentence    :        Sub + will / shall be + I form + ing.
Negative Sentence         :        Sub+ will/shall not be + I form + ing.
Interrogative Sentence :         will/shall + sub + be + I form + ing.

Key-Words

 Tomorrow, Next ..., when + Present Indefinite tense (But these Key words in this tense are generally preceded by the preposition AT.) ( At this time tomorrow, at this time next year)
Ex .
I shall be travelling in a train at this time tomorrow.
A fresh stock of saris will be arriving tomorrow.

Combinations 

When + Present Indefinite + Future Continuous.
Ex. When I reach Shimla, It will be snowing there.

Uses of Future Continuous Tense :-

To express the continuity of a planned action or event
which is to take place at a specified time in future.
Ex. He will be participating in the conference next week.

To express an action which is a part of normal routine or anticipated course of events?
Ex. We shall be visiting Taj during our stay at Agra.




Let us see what have we learnt

Fill in the following blanks with the correct verb forms of Future Indefinite or Future Continuous Tense :-
1.When you reach Shimla, It __________there.                                            ( snow)
2.The Chief guest _______away the prizes at this time tomorrow.               (give)
3.The girls _________at that time.                                                                 (sing)
4.We _______the Chief Minister tomorrow.                                                  (see)
5.We ________Dr. Rao to examine my mother.                                            (ask)
6.When you call on me, I _______my home task.                                          (do)
7.No one _________the room.                                                                       (enter)
8.They _________to canvass for the elections.                                              (go)
9.You ________for a cup of tea ?                                                                  (care)
10.At this time tomorrow you _____________across the Atlantic.               (fly)





Check Yourself Here

1.will be snowing        2.will give       3. Will be singing        4. Shall see      5.shall ask           6.shall be doing        7. Shall enter       8.will go                      9.will you care 10.will be flying






11 FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.

FORMS OF VERB
Affirmative Sentence : Sub+ will/ shall have + III form.
Negative Sentence : Sub + will/ shall not have + III form
Interrogative Sentence: Will/shall + Sub + have + III form.

Key-words
 Tomorrow, Next..., when+ present Indefinite tense, preceded by By/Till/ Before etc.
Ex. I shall have finished reading this novel by Monday.

Uses of Future Perfect Tense :-
To express an action or event expected to be completed by a certain time in future.
Ex. By the end of this mouth, I shall have finished this assignment.

To express not the future but the speaker's belief that something has taken place.
Ex. You will have read about the Wright brothers who invented aeroplane.






Let us see what have we learnt
Fill in the following blanks with the correct form of verbs in Future Indefinite/Future Perfect Tense

1.By the end of this month we ____________ our syllabus.                                     ( complete)
2.You __________ about our plans for the Annual  Day.                             (hear)
3.The train _________ by the time we reach the station.                               (leave)
4.I __________ my hands before I sit for dinner.                                          (wash)
5.They _____________ the news before they receive the telegram.             (hear)
6.He _______ for shopping when you reach his place.                                  (go)
7.The teacher __________ the rolls before we reach the school.                   (call)
8.I _________ on my journey before it gets dark.                                         (start)
9.She _______ rice before the guests arrive.                                                  (cook)
10.We __________ hard before the examination.                                          (study)





Check Yourself Here

1.shall have completed            2.will have heard         3.willhave left             4. Shall wash      5.will have heard                 6.will have gone          7.will have called        8. Shall start       9.will have cooked               10.shall study






12. Future Perfect continuous Tense
(Note: This tense presents pure imagination, so, it is rarely it taken into usage)

FORMS OF VERB
Affirmative Sentence : Sub+ will/ shall have been I form+ ing.
Negative Sentence : Sub + will/ shall not have been I form + ing.
Interrogative Sentence :Will/shall + Sub + have been I form + ing.

Key-WORDS   
Tomorrow, Next..., when+ present Indefinite tense, preceded by since/for.
Ex. shall have been writing letters for some time, before you return.

Uses of Future Perfect Tense :-
It refers to the continuity of an action or event up to a certain point of time in future.
Ex. He will have been living here for two months by this time.






Let us see what have we learnt

Fill in the following blanks with the correct forms of Future Perfect continuous Tense :
1.I ________________ this since morning.                                                    ( read)
2.The gardener ____________ in the garden for two hours                          ( work)
3.They ___________ the meeting for two hours.                                           ( attend)
4.You __________ cricket since morning.                                                     (play)
5.It __________ for two days.                                                                       ( rain)
6.By next month we ____________ in Rohtak for ten years.                        (live)
7.The Indian team _____ for an hour before the match begins.                     ( practice)
8.By the end of this week my sister _____ Judo for two months.                 ( learn)
9.We __________ for examination for a couple of months.                          ( prepare)
10.They _______ this master for several years.                                              ( serve)






Check Yourself Here
1.shall have been reading        2.will have been watering       3.will have been attending         4.will have been playing             5.will have been raining          6. Shall have been living            7.will have been practicing 8.will have been learning           9.shall have been preparing     10.will have been serving







Mixed Exercises on Tenses for Practice



Exercise No. 1

1.   I _________ something burning.                                                               ( smell)
2.   Gita ________ man is mortal.                                                                   (say)
3.   Birds of a feather ______ together.                                                           (flock)
4.   A stitch in time ________ nine                                                                  ( save)
5.   Ramu ____ with us since my birth.                                                             (work)
6.   You _____ your money tomorrow.                                                            (have)
7.     God ____ those, who help themselves.                                                                                   (help)
8.   I _____ all the poems of T.S. Elliot.                                                           (read)
9.   My mother _____ me up in the morning.                                                    ( wake)
10. If you _____ hungry, you can eat something.                                               (be)



Exercise No. 2

1.   This medicine _________ horrible.                                                            (taste)
2.   At present I _______ a letter.                                                                    ( write)
3.   The first world war ___ in 1914.                                                               (begin)
4.   When he arrived home, his sister ______ TV.                                           ( watch)
5.   I ________ this work tomorrow.                                                               ( finish)
6.   It _________ heavily last night.                                                                  (rain)
7.   His son _______ to a local school.                                                             (go)
8.   He _________ here since 1998.                                                                (live)
9.   He just ________ out.                                                                                (go)
10. He never ___________ a lie.                                                                     (tell)



Exercise No. 3

1.   We ________ our friend's wedding at this time tomorrow.                                   (attend)
2.   I know the girl who _____ flowers on the pavement.                                            (sell)
3.   The parents _______ asleep, but the child was playing.                                        (be)
4.   Mrs. Dhar _________ in this school for ten years.                                               (teach)
5.   Amit ____ swimming in the sea.                                                                            (enjoy)
6.   Suresh __________ only five years old when his father died.                                 (be)
7.   My father _______ the letters still.                                                                        (type)
8.   I was doing the last question when the bell ______                                                (ring)
9.   His mother ________ yesterday.                                                                           (die)
10. I should be pleased if he _______.                                                                        (come)



Exercise No. 4

1.   You can achieve nothing if you _______ coward.                                                (be)
2.   Would you beat her if you ___ chance ?                                                              (get)
3.   If they catch you, they __ you.                                                                             ( not spare)
4.   The boy ___________ for an hour, when we reached there.                                (wait)
5.   The patient ________ in the hospital yesterday.                                                    (die)
6.   There ­__________ many guests in the meeting.                                                     (be)
7.   When I first met him, he ____ law.                                                                       (study)
8.   While I was writing a letter, I ____ a knock at the door.                                        ( hear)
9.   By the time we reached the station, the train ____                                                 (leave)
10. He ________ across the road, when a car hit him.                                                (walk)



Exercise No. 5

1.   It ________ since yesterday.                                                                   (rain)
2.   Ram _______ this motor cycle only last month.                                        (buy)
3.   He _______ when the bell rang.                                                               (sleep)
4.   She ______ Matriculation in 1983.                                                           (pass)
5.   It is very cloudy now and the sun ______.                                                 (not shine)
6.   I dreamed that I ______ the Luxmi Bumper draw.                                     (win)
7.   The Haryana Govt. ______ the lotteries soon.                                           (ban)
8.   The P.M. __________ the new dispensary.                                               ( inaugurate)
9.   Whenever I have fever I ___ antibiotics.                                                     (take)
10. Which mountain ranges ________ India from China.                                  (divide)























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